Global Positioning System: Theory and Practice

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Useful Books about GPS

Bookseller Completion Rate This reflects the percentage of orders the seller has received and filled. The tracking process is generally much easier than acquisition, as the spotter now knows quite accurately where the person is located. With the centre of the eye's sophisticated tracking ability, even momentary disappearance of the victim is not a problem, because reliable reacquisition is performed by a search over a smaller area than earlier.

The clutter noise around it is automatically disregarded by the observer. This type of operation is analogous to tracking a GNSS signal. The sensitivity for tracking in GPS receivers is generally better typically about two to five decibels lower in signal power than for acquisition. Why does this happen? When a typical GPS receiver is turned on, the following sequence of operations must occur before the receiver can access the information in a GPS signal and use it to provide a navigation solution: Determine which satellites are visible to the antenna.

Determine the approximate Doppler of each visible satellite. Detect a signal and determine its code delay and carrier frequency. This permits the receiver to establish a frequency search region for each visible satellite, and is similar to establishing the region of ocean to search in the above analogy.

Step 3 requires by far the most computation. Alignment of the code is achieved when averaging over a sufficient time period allows the signal-to-noise ratio SNR to be built to a usable level.

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Thus, in addition to the code search, a receiver also needs to search in frequency. Signal Tracking Once the cell containing the signal has been detected in Step 4, typical receivers use code and carrier tracking loops in Step 5 to generate error signals that keep the replica and received codes aligned and also keep the receiver tuned to the correct frequency as changes in Doppler occur.

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However, a discrete approximation to these methods of tracking is to repeatedly compare the values of S in the current signal cell with the values in the eight cells surrounding it. Although the approximation is somewhat crude, it makes analysis of tracking sensitivity much easier and does not really falsify our understanding.

If the maximum value of S in the surrounding cells exceeds that of the central cell, the cell with that maximum value is declared as the new signal cell. To summarize, with enough processing, no theoretical limit exists for either acquisition or tracking sensitivity. However, because tracking requires examination of only a local code delay and carrier frequency region and coherent averaging can be used as well over the full length of data bits in legacy L1 GPS signals , tracking can be made more sensitive than acquisition before cost limits either in hardware or processing time are reached.

Similar conclusions can be reached for other GNSS signals, even taking into account differences in their characteristics. A typical civilian GPS receiver provides metre accuracy, depending on number of satellites available, and the geometry of those satellites. To get within a centimeter or two, they must use correctional information and computing, as well as using more sophisticated radio reception techniques.


Similar correctional information is also available for a typical civilian GPS receiver. Then the accuracy can be improved to one or two metres in some cases under a metre! How are these corrections provided to your GPS receiver? There are a number of free and subscription services available to provide DGPS corrections.

These beacons operate in the This receiver will receive both the standard GPS signal and the beacon signal and provide a corrected location based on these two signals. This system is NOT available in Australia. It is limited to North America. Again, a receiver is purchased, but a license for the ongoing signal is required. Elevation readings and GPS How far are we above sea level?

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  • These GPS have a built in altimeter, which can give quite accurate within 3 metres height readings. There are two major factors involved in elevation and GPS. Firstly, what do you mean by elevation? GPS primarily indicates a surface horizontal position based on a mathematical model representing the earth's near-spherical surface.

    Height or elevation is a different kettle of fish. GPS can give a distance from the centre of the earth, and then by using the radius of the surface model see above , give you an elevation from the surface model. Let's call this the mathematical elevation. Then you have to ask, does this represent a height above sea level?

    The answer is no. It may do so in places, but only by accident. There are tables of the differences around the world, between the mathematical elevation and sea level elevation. These tables are the result of observations taken over the last few centuries, by surveyors, space scientists and geologists. Geologists get involved in these observations, because anomalies in gravity strengths often indicate mineralogy. And gravity strengths relate to the behaviour of level determination on the earth's surface. Because the position solution found by GPS is a mathematical one, and the ranging from the satellites is in the order of 20, kms, there is an error bias in the direction of the earths centre.

    Because of intersecting lines that may not quite meet. This of course is the elevation solution. So if we have an error of 10 metres in the horizontal position, the error in the elevation will be more like metres. Your small standard GPS unit usually displays elevation, but you must accept it knowing the above limitations. I can say that it is reasonably sensible. Around the coast of Australia, it will be somewhere around zero, give or take 50 metres.

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    In Toowoomba, it will be about metres. Elsewhere in the world, it may show greater, or lesser discrepancy. For a more technical explanation of the differences between the GPS surface model the spheroid , and the sea level surface model the geoid , you can visit the Geoscience Australia website at ga. This estimation, which has become fact through further observation, lays the basis for a true global positioning system.

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    Newton was also the bloke, you remember, who created the theory of gravity when the apple fell from a tree. Simple really when you think about it afterward; how else would you explain it. I mention Newton, because he was an Englishman, and I am descended from the English. But there were others of course. Newton was preceded by Ptolemy, an Egyptian, in the first century AD. He simply expanded on prior thought from the Greeks, but Ptolemy's are the earliest recorded works on geographical position.

    Publisher: Springer Nature , This specific ISBN edition is currently not available. View all copies of this ISBN edition:. Synopsis About this title This new edition adds the most recent advances in GPS technology, although the overall structure essentially conforms to the former editions. Review : " Learn more about this copy. About AbeBooks. Other Popular Editions of the Same Title. Search for all books with this author and title. Customers who bought this item also bought.

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