Ordering International Politics: Identity, Crisis and Representational Force

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Dispatch time is working days from our warehouse. Book will be sent in robust, secure packaging to ensure it reaches you securely. Condition: Brand New. In Stock. Rather than the self-interest that realists see as a motivating factor, functionalists focus on common interests shared by states. Integration develops its own internal dynamic: as states integrate in limited functional or technical areas, they increasingly find that momentum for further rounds of integration in related areas.

This " invisible hand " of integration phenomenon is termed "spillover". Although integration can be resisted, it becomes harder to stop integration's reach as it progresses. This usage, and the usage in functionalism in international relations , is the less common meaning of functionalism. More commonly, however, functionalism is an argument that explains phenomena as functions of a system rather than an actor or actors. Immanuel Wallerstein employed a functionalist theory when he argued that the Westphalian international political system arose to secure and protect the developing international capitalist system.

His theory is called "functionalist" because it says that an event was a function of the preferences of a system and not the preferences of an agent.

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Functionalism is different from structural or realist arguments in that while both look to broader, structural causes, realists and structuralists more broadly say that the structure gives incentives to agents, while functionalists attribute causal power to the system itself, bypassing agents entirely.

Post-structuralism differs from most other approaches to international politics because it does not see itself as a theory, school or paradigm which produces a single account of the subject matter. Instead, post-structuralism is an approach, attitude, or ethos that pursues critique in particular way.

Post-structuralism sees critique as an inherently positive exercise that establishes the conditions of possibility for pursuing alternatives. It states that "Every understanding of international politics depends upon abstraction, representation and interpretation". Scholars associated with post-structuralism in international relations include Richard K.

Shapiro , R. Walker , and Lene Hansen. Post-modernist approaches to international relations are critical of metanarratives and denounces traditional IR's claims to truth and neutrality. Postcolonial International relations scholarship posits a critical theory approach to International relations IR , and is a non-mainstream area of international relations scholarship. Post-colonialism focuses on the persistence of colonial forms of power and the continuing existence of racism in world politics. Evolutionary perspectives, such as from evolutionary psychology , have been argued to help explain many features of international relations.

However, a variety of evolved psychological mechanisms, in particular those for dealing with inter group interactions, are argued to influence current international relations. These include evolved mechanisms for social exchange, cheating and detecting cheating, status conflicts, leadership, ingroup and outgroup distinction and biases, coalitions, and violence.

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Evolutionary concepts such as inclusive fitness may help explain seeming limitations of a concept such as egotism which is of fundamental importance to realist and rational choice international relations theories. In recent years, with significant advances in neuroscience and neuroimaging tools, IR Theory has benefited from further multidisciplinary contributions. Nayef Al-Rodhan from Oxford University has argued that neuroscience [48] can significantly advance the IR debate as it brings forward new insights about human nature, which is at the centre of political theory.

New tools to scan the human brain, and studies in neurochemistry allow us to grasp what drives divisiveness, [49] conflict, and human nature in general. The theory of human nature in Classical Realism, developed long before the advent of neuroscience, stressed that egoism and competition were central to human behaviour, to politics and social relations. Evidence from neuroscience, however, provides a more nuanced understanding of human nature, which Prof. Al-Rodhan describes as emotional amoral egoistic.

These three features can be summarized as follows: 1. This neurophilosophy of human nature can also be applied to states [50] - similarly to the Realist analogy between the character and flaws of man and the state in international politics.

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Prof Al-Rodhan argues there are significant examples in history and contemporary politics that demonstrate states behave less rationality than IR dogma would have us believe: different strategic cultures, habits, [51] identity politics influence state conduct, geopolitics and diplomacy in profound ways. Queer international relations scholarship aims to broaden the scope and method of traditional international relations theory to include sexed and gendered approaches that are often excluded in the discipline at large.

While affiliated with feminist theory and gender studies , as well as post-structuralism , queer IR theory is not reducible to any other field of international relations scholarship. Queer international relations theory works to expose the many ways in which sexualities and gender affect international politics. Queer IR theory takes sites of traditional international relations scholarship war and peace, international political economy , and state and nation building as its subjects of study.

It also expands its scope and methods beyond those traditionally utilized in Realist IR scholarship. Ontologically , queer IR utilizes a different scope from traditional IR, as it aims to non-monolithically address the needs of various queer groups, including trans -, inter-, cross-, and pan- gendered, sexed, and sexualized bodies.

Epistemologically , queer IR explores alternative methodologies to those traditionally used in IR, as it emphasizes the sexual dimension of knowledge within international relations. Criticism for queer theory in general, and queer international relations in particular, addresses worries of the minimization or exclusion of certain groups.

While queer IR incorporates transgender individuals in its expanded scope, some argue its emphasis on sexuality fails to adequately capture transgender experiences. This leads Stryker to advocate that transgender studies follows its own trajectory. Laura Sjoberg advocates for allying trans-theorizing and feminist theorizing in IR. She suggests some possible improvements that trans-theorizing may offer for feminist IR theory, which include a more nuanced understanding of gender hierarchy through a pluralist approach to sex, a holistic view of gender that resists viewing gender entirely either as a social construction or as biologically essential , and an increased awareness of gender as involving power relations among different sexes and genders.

As such, Sjoberg advocates for the inclusion of trans-theorizing in feminist IR theory in the interests of improving explanations and understandings of global politics. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the theoretical discipline. For international studies, see International relations. Idealism Democratic peace theory Republican liberalism Institutionalism Neoliberalism Interdependence liberalism Sociological liberalism Institutional liberalism. Modern constructivism Post-modern constructivism Feminist constructivism.

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Villanova University. Articles Cited by Co-authors. Title Cited by Year Whysoft power'isn't so soft: representational force and the sociolinguistic construction of attraction in world politics JB Mattern. European Journal of International Relations 7 3 , , The Oxford handbook of international relations , Articles 1—20 Show more.

Help Privacy Terms. Whysoft power'isn't so soft: representational force and the sociolinguistic construction of attraction in world politics JB Mattern Millennium 33 3 , , International Studies Review 6 2 , ,